All authors should be familiar with and able to use the transitions in the table below accurately when writing journal articles. Interpreting transitions correctly is essential to understanding academic writing, because these words show how ideas are connected. In English, the connections between ideas are almost always specified clearly with transitions; it is very rare for such connections to be left up to the reader’s imagination. That is, the logical connection between ideas is provided in the text explicitly.


PurposeTransitionsExample of correct usage
CauseBecause, Since, On account of, For this reason, Due toWe travelled by train because the bus was too slow.
EffectTherefore, Hence, Thus, Consequently, As a resultThe new cultivar produced significantly more fruits per hectare than the old one. We therefore conclude that it is the superior choice for cultivation.
SimilaritySimilarly, LikewiseThe fruits produced by the new cultivar are larger and juicier than those produced by the old cultivar. Similarly, their nutritional quality is higher.
ContrastIn contrast, On the contrary, However, Meanwhile, Despite, Nevertheless, Notwithstanding, Though, But, Otherwise, On the other handTime constraints and obligations made it difficult for Gina to maintain a good academic record. However, the principal knew about Gina’s situation, and motivated for her to be granted a concession.
ClarificationThat is to say; i.e., In other wordsHe put the pieces in the box sequentially. In other words, he put them in one by one, in order.
QualificationAlmost, Perhaps, Nearly, Maybe, Probably, Frequently, AlthoughAlthough she did her best, she did not win the prize.
IntensificationIndeed, In fact, Certainly, UndoubtedlyMany people think red cars are safer than other colors. Indeed, statistics show that red cars are significantly less likely to be involved in accidents.
Providing additional detailIn addition, Additionally, Furthermore, Besides, Also, Further, And, TooMore than a hundred soldiers have been affected by the radiation exposure. Additionally, there are 42 civilians who need medical assistance.
Emphasis, additional detailMoreoverThere were fewer road accidents in the past six years. Moreover, the incidence of traffic-related fatalities has been significantly lower.
ExemplificationFor example, e.g., Specifically, For instanceSome of the president’s policies were disastrous. For instance, his immigrant policy resulted in unrest and economic collapse in surrounding states.
TemporalThen, Next, Thereafter, Earlier, Before, Afterwards, Later, Meanwhile, While,Immediately, Following, Simultaneously, SubsequentlyWe separated the diseased cells from the normal ones. Next, we centrifuged the diseased cells to isolate their membranes.
SummarizingIn summary, Overall, To sum up, In brief, In sumA six-fold decrease in resistance to the applied forces and a twofold increase in the rate of crack formation were observed. In summary, increasing the proportion of filler beyond 10% is detrimental to the integrity of the coating.
ConclusionIn conclusion, To conclude, FinallyIn conclusion, we find that the new design represents a substantial improvement over previous options.

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