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  • The 3-em dash (———)
  • The 3-em dash (———) is the least common type of dash symbol in academic writing, but appears primarily in the reference list or bibliography of a document to replace an author’s name that has previously been repeated:   Correct example Incorrect example Niklas, K.J. (1992) Plantbiomechanics: an engineeringapproach to plant form andfunction, pp. 48–122.University of Chicago Press,Chicago and London.——— (1992) Plantbiomechanics: a secondengineering approach to plantform and function, pp. 48–122.University of Chicago Press,Chicag...
  • How to introduce acronyms
  • Traditional brackets The standard way to introduce an acronym or initialism is to place it in round brackets after the full term. This is the approach I’ve used in many of the above examples. That is, suppose we wish to introduce the initials ‘AWP’ for ‘acoustic wave propagator’. We would write: Correct: “In this paper, an acoustic wave propagator (AWP) approach is employed to investigate sound propagation around a barrier.” This approach is the simplest and the easiest to understand and follow, so it is the most commonly used in academic writing...