The text below contains several transitional devices. Many of them are incorrect. Can you identify which are incorrect and specify the terms that should be used instead?

Since the beginning of the space age, people have wanted to colonize other planets. Until a few years ago, indeed, this idea has been purely the realm of science fiction. There are several reasons for this, although the fact that none of the other planets in our solar system satisfy the conditions required to support life. In addition, with our current space travel technology it would take years, even decades, to reach just our nearest neighbors, never mind planets that are further away.

Recently, moreover, technology has made several giant leaps forward, but it will soon be possible both to travel almost as fast as light and to adjust environments on such a large scale that we will be able to make even the most inhospitable planets habitable. Finally, it looks like extraterrestrial colonization is really possible. In conclusion, plans to establish a colony on Mars are being put into action. Furthermore, space engineers are busy building a fleet of ships to transport colonists there, astronauts and wealthy civilians are vying for the privilege of being a part of that first colony, and scientists are hard at work putting the finishing touches to a range of technologies that will allow the colonists to live comfortably on the red planet.

The technologies that are being developed are almost unbelievable. To summarize, there is now a type of compost that, when sprinkled on the ground and watered, instantly expands to ten times its original volume and remains hydrated for at least three weeks. Besides, when seeds are sown in it, they germinate within 24 hours and grow three times faster than they would in normal soil. Also, the plants that will be grown in the colony will contain all the nutrients the colonists will need to stay healthy. Therefore, an ingenious throat implant has been developed that will allow people to breathe on any planet without having to wear space helmets. Because of this, there are many concerns regarding the wisdom of this venture, and politicians are nevertheless having a difficult time persuading funders and voters to support it.

Correct answers appear in bold in the text below, and the numbers in brackets link to explanations below that. Note that in some instances, there is more than one option that would work. The text contains the most natural-sounding option in each case, but where there are other acceptable options they are included in the explanations below.

Since the beginning of the space age, people have wanted to colonize other planets. Until a few years ago, though (1), this idea has been purely the realm of science fiction. There are several reasons for this, such as (2) the fact that none of the other planets in our solar system satisfy the conditions required to support life. In addition (3), with our current space travel technology it would take years, even decades, to reach just our nearest neighbors, never mind planets that are further away.

Recently, however (4), technology has made several giant leaps forward, and (5) it will soon be possible both to travel almost as fast as light and to adjust environments on such a large scale that we will be able to make even the most inhospitable planets habitable. Finally (6), it looks like extraterrestrial colonization is really possible. As a result (7), plans to establish a colony on Mars are being put into action. Indeed (8), space engineers are busy building a fleet of ships to transport colonists there, astronauts and wealthy civilians are vying for the privilege of being a part of that first colony, and scientists are hard at work putting the finishing touches to a range of technologies that will allow the colonists to live comfortably on the red planet.

The technologies that are being developed are almost unbelievable. For instance (9), there is now a type of compost that, when sprinkled on the ground and watered, instantly expands to ten times its original volume and remains hydrated for at least three weeks. Moreover (10), when seeds are sown in it, they germinate within 24 hours and grow three times faster than they would in normal soil. Also (11), the plants that will be grown in the colony will contain all the nutrients the colonists will need to stay healthy. Furthermore (12), an ingenious throat implant has been developed that will allow people to breathe on any planet without having to wear space helmets. Nonetheless (13), there are many concerns regarding the wisdom of this venture, and politicians are therefore (14) having a difficult time persuading funders and voters to support it.

1. Though or however (not indeed): This sentence presents a contrast to the first sentence, so the transitional device needs to convey a contrast rather than an intensification.

2. Such as (not although): The fact that the other planets cannot support life is an example of the reasons why the idea has not been feasible, so a transitional device denoting exemplification (not contrast) is required.

3. In addition: This is correct because this sentence presents an additional reason.

4. However or though (not moreover): This sentence presents a contrast to the previous paragraph, so the transitional device needs to imply a contrast, not an additional detail emphasizing the point of the previous paragraph.

5. And (not but): The point introduced by this transition is further to, or expands upon, the first part of the sentence. “But” would imply that it contradicts it.

6. Finally: This is correct because this sentence refers to something that has happened after a long period of anticipation.

7. As a result or accordingly or consequently (not in conclusion): This sentence introduces a result or consequence of the advances in technology, but it is not a conclusion.

8. Indeed or in fact (not furthermore): This sentence intensifies and expands upon the previous sentence, but it does not provide additional detail as such, since the preceding sentence did not provide detail to add to.

9. For instance or for example (not to summarize): This sentence provides an example of one of the new technologies, so a transitional device that denotes exemplification is required. “To summarize” would imply that the sentence summarizes all the new technologies (and in fact, if it did that, “briefly” would sound more natural).

10. Moreover or furthermore or in addition (not besides): This sentence provides additional detail to and emphasizes the point made in the previous sentence. “Besides” implies “apart from that, there is also this”, and, as mentioned earlier, it requires an object after it.

11. Also: This is correct, because this sentence provides more additional detail, but using another complicated additional detail transitional word (like furthermore or moreover) would be repetitive and would sound unnatural.

12. Furthermore or in addition (not therefore): This sentence provides yet another example of the new technology, and further emphasizes the point about it being unbelievable. It is not a consequence of the previous sentence, which is what “therefore” would imply.

13. Nonetheless or nevertheless or despite this (not because of this): This sentence contrasts the optimistic tone of the previous sentences outlining all the new technology, so it requires a contrastive transitional device. “Because of this” implies that it is a result of the preceding statements.

14. Therefore or thus or consequently (not nevertheless): This part of this sentence is a result of the first part of the sentence, so it requires a transitional device that signifies an effect. “Nevertheless” would imply that it contrasts the first part of the sentence.

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