The 3-em dash (———) is the least common type of dash symbol in academic writing, but appears primarily in the reference list or bibliography of a document to replace an author’s name that has previously been repeated:

 

Correct exampleIncorrect example
Niklas, K.J. (1992) Plant
biomechanics: an engineering
approach to plant form and
function, pp. 48–122.
University of Chicago Press,
Chicago and London.
——— (1992) Plant
biomechanics: a second
engineering approach to plant
form and function, pp. 48–122.
University of Chicago Press,
Chicago and London.

Niklas, K.J. (1992) Plant biomechanics: an engineering
approach to plant form and function, pp. 48–122.
University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
– (1992) Plant biomechanics: a second engineering
approach to plant form and function, pp. 48–122.
University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.


Incorrect because it uses an en dash, which is too short.

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